ACE Prevention was a large, 5-year study funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) and jointly led by Professor Theo Vos of the Centre for Burden of Disease and Cost-Effectiveness at The University of Queensland and Professor Rob Carter of the Deakin Health Economics Unit at Deakin University. The final report was presented on 8 September 2010.

The overall aim of this project was to provide a comprehensive analysis of the comparative cost-effectiveness of preventive intervention options addressing the non-communicable disease burden in Australia, with a specific focus on Indigenous Australians.

ACE Prevention is the most comprehensive evaluation of health prevention measures ever conducted world-wide, involving input from 130 top health experts. The research team assessed 123 illness prevention measures to identify those which will prevent the most illness and premature deaths and those that are best value for money. For comparison purposes 27 treatment interventions were included. To ensure maximum comparability between the results for different interventions, an ACE Prevention Economic Protocol (PDF, 600KB) was developed.


The objectives of ACE Prevention were to:

  1. assess the relative cost-effectiveness of a comprehensive set of preventive interventions for non-communicable disease in Australia, together with a selected set of comparator care/cure interventions, as a critical input to resource allocation decisions in the health sector;
  2. recommend a ‘menu’ of cost-effective interventions from which policy makers can choose an optimal mix of preventive interventions for non-communicable disease control within the constraints of current budgets allocated to prevention, and alternative scenarios of budgetary provision;
  3. evaluate the impact on costs and outcomes separately for each of the interventions and combinations thereof if directed at Indigenous Australians; and
  4. strengthen the use of evidence in health priority setting in by increasing the capacity among key stakeholders to more effectively incorporate research findings into policy and programme debates taking into account issues of equity, acceptability to stakeholders and feasibility of implementation.

Final report

The final report provides a comprehensive overview of the findings of ACE Prevention.

Download the ACE Prevention final report (PDF, 3MB)



Overall results

Risk Factors


Cobiac LJ, Vos T, Barendregt JJ. Cost-effectiveness of interventions to promote physical activity: a modelling study. PLoS Med 2009;6:e1000110

Pamphlet 11: Physical activity (PDF, 888KB)

Fruits and vegetables

Cobiac LJ, Vos T, Veerman JL. Cost-effectiveness of interventions to promote fruit and vegetable consumption. PLoS ONE 5(11): e14148. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0014148

Pamphlet 7: Fruit and vegetables (PDF, 1MB)


Cobiac LJ, Vos T, Veerman JL. Cost-effectiveness of interventions to reduce dietary salt intake. Heart 2010;96:1920e1925. doi:10.1136/hrt.2010.199240

Pamphlet 15: Salt (PDF, 1MB)


Cobiac LJ, Vos T, Veerman JL. Cost-effectiveness of Weight Watchers and the Lighten Up to a Healthy Lifestyle program. Aust N Z J Public Health 2010;34(3):240–247

Body mass

Pamphlet 9: Obesity (PDF, 1MB)

Blood pressure and cholesterol

Pamphlet 3: Blood pressure and cholesterol lowering (PDF, 101KB)

Bone mineral density

Non-communicable diseases

Illicit drugs

Pamphlet 4: Cannabis (PDF, 893KB)

Cervical cancer

Briefing paper: Cervical cancer (PDF, 346KB)

Pamphlet 5: Cervical cancer screening, SunSmart and PSA screening (PDF, 446KB)


Bertram MY, Lim SS, Barendregt JJ, Vos T. Assessing the cost-effectiveness of drug and lifestyle intervention following opportunistic screening for pre-diabetes in primary care. Diabetologia 2010 May;53(5):875–881

Pamphlet 12: Pre-diabetes screening (PDF, 640KB)  

Chronic kidney disease

Pamphlet 14: Renal replacement therapy, screening and early treatment of chronic kidney disease (PDF, 831KB)

Mental health

  • Briefing paper: Childhood anxiety (ACE Steering Committee only; part of PhD work) 
  • Briefing paper: Childhood depression (ACE Steering Committee only; part of PhD work)
  • Briefing paper: Youth psychosis (ACE Steering Committee only; part of PhD work)
  • Briefing paper: Depression screening (ACE Steering Committee only; part of PhD work)
  • Briefing paper: Post-partum depression (ACE Steering Committee only; part of PhD work)
  • Briefing paper: Suicide prevention (ACE Steering Committee only; part of PhD work)
  • Briefing paper: Depression treatment (PDF, 248KB)

Vision loss

Oral health

Cobiac LJ, Vos T. Cost-effectiveness of extending the coverage of water supply fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries in Australia. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2012. Epub online: 27 MAR 2012

Briefing paper: Regular dental checks for adolescents (PDF, 64KB)


Higashi H, Barendregt JJ (2011) Cost-Effectiveness of Total Hip and Knee Replacements for the Australian Population with Osteoarthritis: Discrete-Event Simulation Model. PLoS ONE 6(9): e25403. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0025403

Communicable diseases


Briefing paper: Varicella zoster vaccination (PDF, 121KB)


Mogasale V, Barendregt JJ. Cost-effectiveness of influenza vaccination of people aged 50-64 year in Australia: results are inconclusive. ANZPH, 2011;35 (2):180-6
(With comments in a letter from Newall & Scuffham and response from Mogasale & Barendregt)


Pamphlet 8: Cost-Effectiveness of HIV Interventions (PDF, 604KB)


Indigenous results

Ong K, Kelaher M, Anderson I, Carter R. A cost-based equity weight for use in the economic evaluation of primary health care interventions: case study of the Australian Indigenous population. International Journal for Equity in Health 2009, 8:34